API 982 , بازرسی لاینینگ نسوز ها

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 982 : Inspection and Assessment of Refractory Linings

دانلود استاندارد API RP 982 (استاندارد بازرسی و مدیریت کار لاینینگ نسوز در صنایع نفت و گاز و پتروشیمی)

فهرست استاندارد API 982 :

1 Scope 
2 References 
3 Terms, Definitions, and Abbreviations  
4 Responsibilities 
4.1 Owner’s Responsibilities .
4.2 Refractory Inspector’s Responsibilities
4.3 Refractory Contractor’s Responsibilities
5 Safety of Personnel 
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Safety Considerations
6 Inspection and Assessment of Refractory Lining 
6.1 Initial Inspections
6.2 Inspection Methods
6.3 Remaining Life Calculation (Erosion Loss)
6.4 Exploratory Removal, Sampling, and Testing
7 Marking System 
7.1 Marking System Overview
7.2 Measuring and Documenting
8 Critical Activities and Documentation Requirements during Installation of Refractory 
8.1 Monitoring
8.2 Quality Control
8.3 Records
8.4 Inspection and Test Plan (ITP)
8.5 Installation Quality Control .
8.6 Quality Control for Pneumatic Gunning and Shotcrete
8.7 Brick Installation Quality Control
8.8 Fiber Installation Quality Control
9 Refractory Lining Degradation Mechanism Matrix 
Annex A (informative) Refractory Lining Defects and Degradation Mechanisms
Annex B (informative) Refractory Lining Degradation Example Image
Annex C (normative) API Certification for Refractory Inspection Personnel
Annex D (informative) Vulnerabilities
A.1 Repair Zone Perpendicularity
A.2 Repair Zone Perpendicularity and Offset Between Layers in Multi-layer Linings
A.3 FCC Regenerator Cyclone Common Erosion Locations
B.1 Erosion of Hex Metal in FCCU Regenerator Cyclone Caused by High Velocity Catalyst
B.2 Exposed Tabs
B.3 Preferential Erosion of Double Hexmesh Cell Walls Aligned in the Flow Direction
B.4 Severe Erosion and Hole
B.5 Explosive Spalling
B.6 Spalling of Hexmesh Caused by Coke Jacking
B.7 Spalling of Castable Refractory by Coke Impregnation and Thermal Shock
B.8 Pinch Spalling of Brick in SRU Reaction Furnace
B.9 Spalling in a Gunned Lining
B.10 Spalling of Biscuits in Hexmesh
B.11 Severe Cracking of Castable Refractory around a CO Boiler Nozzle
B.12 Excessive Shrinkage of Ceramic Fiber Modules
B.13 Liquid Formed during Operation
B.14 Overheating and Cracking from Flame Impingement
B.15 Slag Attack
B.16 Alkali Hydrolysis
B.17 Alkali Hydrolysis
B.18 Dew Point Corrosion of Shell and Anchors
B.19 Corrosion of Fired Heater Casing .
B.20 Corrosion of Hex Attachment Welds .
B.21 Failure of Anchor Legs above Attachment Weld .
B.22 Sheets of Hex Falling Away Due to Insufficient W elding
B.23 Failure of Brick Tie Backs Leading to Detachment of Entire Panel
B.24 Shell Erosion Caused by Hot Gas Bypass
B.25 Spalling Where Hot Gas Bypass Entered into Refractory of a Slide Valve
1 Formulas for Calculating Areas of Basic Shapes
2 Common Deterioration and Failure Mechanisms for Solid Fluid Units, including FCCU
3 Common Deterioration and Failure Mechanisms for Furnaces and Heaters
4 Common Deterioration and Failure Mechanisms for other Equipment with Refractory
C.1 Minimum Inspector Competencies


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